Exploring Geovisualization: International Cartographic Association
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Forgot your login information? In: Encyclopedia of Geographic Information Science. Edited by: Karen K. Subject: Geographic Information Systems. Dykes, J.
Kemp Ed. Dykes, Jason. Kemp, Karen K.
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Login or create a profile so that you can create alerts and save clips, playlists, and searches. Consequently, the data domain, erroneous data, and the data distributions should be examined first, which require statistics skills and experience in data handling. If the data is not preprocessed properly, in exploratory analyses, the resulting visual output might lead to wrong insights thus resulting hypotheses might be misguided , or if the goal is to communicate, the output will fail to convey the intended message.
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Given the ever-growing data collection opportunities e. This issue requires a good understanding of available visualization techniques and display design considerations e. For example, although there are space-efficient visualization techniques e. Deciding what aspects are interesting can be left to the user to explore in an interactive environment with careful interface design, which is ideally user-tested for the intended user group. Design-related knowledge will ensure that the visual encoding always reflects the documented or at least anticipated requirements of the target user group. It is important to remember that there are large individual and group differences among users Griffin et al.
Note that testing the visual displays on oneself is not a predictor of how successfully the others are able to work with these displays.
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Last but not least, the more the relevant technology e. Besides the necessary technology and design skills discussed above, graphical or visual literacy Dondis, is of core importance to visual thinking, and therefore, necessary to read and interpret visuospatial displays. To benefit from geovisualization environments, users need to be aware of their level of experience as well as their perceptual and cognitive limitations Slocum et al. The confirmation bias, for example, might mis guide the attention to verify hypotheses made before exploring data. Additionally, the complexity of data or the represented phenomena might impose limitations on the legibility and expressiveness of a visuospatial display.
For example, if the display shows aggregated data, one must pay close attention to the aggregation unit when interpreting e. Andrienko, G. International Journal of Geographical Information Science , 28 10 , Andrienko, N.
ICA Commission on GeoVisualization
Cartography and Geographic Information Science , 29 4 : — Battersby, S. Annals of the Association of American Geographers , 99 2 , — In Computer Graphics Forum Vol.
Persistent Research Challenges in Geovisualization. International Journal of Cartography 3 DiBiase, D. Visualization in the Earth Sciences. Earth and Mineral Sciences , 59 2 , 13— Griffin, A.
International Journal of Cartography , 3 sup1 , 90— Hardisty, F. International Journal of Geographical Information Science , 25 2 : — Hegarty, M. Jern, M. MacEachren, A. Visualization in Modern Cartography: Setting the Agenda. Taylor Eds. Oxford: Pergamon.
Geovisualization for Knowledge Construction and Decision Support. McCormick, B. Visualization in Scientific Computing. Computer Graphics , 21 6. Michel, J.
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Science , , — Openshaw S. Environment and Planning A, 16 1 , 17— They are used increasingly in the process of GIScience for knowledge building and theory generation, decision support, disaster management, information communication, education and learning. Among the data the modern society has to deal with, a great part involves a geographical or, more generally, spatial component. Very often, spatial data also have a temporal component. Hence, spatial data have a complex structure involving space, time, and a number of thematic attributes, which poses significant challenges to the visualization.
The visualization of spatial data requires the use of maps or 3D displays where at least two display dimensions are utilised to represent the physical space, which is different from information visualization dealing with abstract data spaces. This restricts the possibilities for the representation of the temporal and thematic components of the data. In modern geovisualization software, such data are represented using both traditional cartographic techniques based on the use of colours, textures, symbols, and diagrams; and using computer-enabled techniques such as map animation and interactive 3D views.
Moreover, maps are used in combination with nongeographic visualization techniques such as scatterplots or parallel coordinates.