HANDBOOK OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING - Air Pollution Control Engineering
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Linear and nonlinear equations, eigen value problems, Accuracy of approximate calculations, interpolation, differentiation and evaluation of single and multiple integrals, initial and boundary value problems by finite difference method, variation and weighted residual methods, fundamental of statistical distribution. Jain, S. K Iyengar and R.
Air Pollution Control Equipment Selection Guide
Jain Numerical methods-problem and solutions, Wiley eastern limited. Hamming, Numerical methods for scientist and engineers, McGraw Hill.
Mathews and K. Hayter , Probability and statistics, Duxbury. CE Optimization Methods Numerical methods for nonlinear unconstrained and constrained problems, sensitivity analysis, Linear post optimal analysis, sensitivity analysis of discrete and distributed systems.
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Introduction to variational methods of sensitivity analysis, shape sensitivity, Introduction to integer programming, dynamic. Deb, K. Arora , J. Hafta , R. Elements of structural optimization, 3rd Ed. Kluwer academic publishers, Introduction — computing techniques —numerical methods - finite difference and finite element methods — applications in surface and ground water modeling, solute transport problems, pipe network analysis; artificial intelligence — applications. Chow, V. Chepra S. Segerlind , L. Todd, D. Elective Group — B. Zannetti , P. Barratt, R.
Rau J. Khare , M. Blackadar , A. Drum, D.
CE : Environmental Management Environmental management- principles, problems and strategies; Review of political, ecological and remedial actions; future strategies; multidisciplinary environmental strategies, the human, planning, decision-making and management dimensions; environmental impact assessment EIA , definitions and concepts, rationale and historical development of EIA, sustainable development, Initial environmental examination, environmental impact statement, environmental appraisal, environmental impact factors and areas of consideration, measurement of environmental impact, organization, scope and methodologies of EIA, status of EIA in India; Environmental audit, definitions and concepts, environmental audit versus accounts audit, compliance audit,.
Canter, L. Agarwal , N. Judith, P. Burke, B.
Singh and L. Rau and D.
Fuggle and M. Physical, chemical and biological quality of natural surface water and groundwater; Organic and inorganic pollutants in water and wastewater; water quality criteria for drinking, municipal, industrial, agricultural, recreational, wildlife and aquatic organisms; specific refractory substances in water and its impact on water usage; effluent discharge standards; Water quality Index; water.
Industrial wastewater versus municipal wastewater; Effects of industrial wastewater on receiving water bodies and municipal wastewater treatment plant; Bioassay test; Sampling techniques; Stream protection measures; Volume reduction, strength reduction, Neutralization, Equalization, Proportioning; Combined treatment of raw industrial wastewater with domestic sewage; Zero discharge concepts; Removal of specific pollutants in industrial effluents, e.
Nemerow , N. L and Dasgupta , A. Eckenfelder, W. Components of water supply systems; Water use and demand estimation; Design period, population data and flow rates for water supply systems; Factors affecting water consumption and variation in demand; Design of water distribution systems, methods of analysis for optimal distribution network design; Types of reservoirs and design parameters and methods; Design of water pumping stations. Design principles of wastewater collection systems: separate, combined and semi-combined sewers; Estimation of dry weather flows; Sewer pipe hydraulics: sizing of pipes and design; Manhole chambers and storm water overflows; Pumping stations, screens and inverted screens.
Maintenance of water supply and wastewater systems. Garg , S. Comprehensive adherence to procedures should be strived for in conducting measurements. Using standardized and proven equipment and procedures for ambient air pollutant concentration measurement cannot alone ensure acceptable quality if the user does not employ adequate methods of quality control. A wealth of measurement procedures exists for the broad range of inorganic gases. We will differentiate between manual and automatic methods. In the case of manual measurement procedures for inorganic gases, the substance to be measured is normally adsorbed during the sampling in a solution or solid material.
In most cases a photometric determination is made after an appropriate colour reaction. Several manual measurement procedures have special significance as reference procedures. Because of the relatively high personnel cost, these manual procedures are conducted only rarely for field measurements today, when alternative automatic procedures are available.
The most important procedures are briefly sketched in table A special sampling variant, used primarily in connection with manual measurement procedures, is the diffusion separation tube denuder. The denuder technique is aimed at separating the gas and particle phases by using their different diffusion rates. Thus, it is often used on difficult separation problems e. In the classic denuder technique, the test air is sucked through a glass tube with a special coating, depending on the material s to be collected.
The denuder technique has been further developed in many variations and also partially automated. It has greatly expanded the possibilities of differentiated sampling, but, depending on the variant, it can be very laborious, and proper utilization requires a great deal of experience. There are numerous different continuous measuring monitors on the market for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and ozone. For the most part they are used particularly in measurement networks. The most important features of the individual methods are collected in table Interferences, e.
It should be emphasized here that all automatic measurement procedures based on chemical-physical principles must be calibrated using manual reference procedures.membership.embedded-vision.com/fantasy-magazine-january-2011.php
Handbook of Environmental Engineering: Advanced air and noise pollution control - Google книги
Since automatic equipment in measurement networks often runs for extended periods of time e. This generally is done using zero and test gases that can be produced by several methods preparation of ambient air; pressurized gas cylinders; permeation; diffusion; static and dynamic dilution. Among particulate air pollutants, dustfall and suspended particulate matter SPM are differentiated. Dustfall consists of larger particles, which sink to the ground because of their size and thickness. SPM includes the particle fraction that is dispersed in the atmosphere in a quasi-stable and quasi-homogenous manner and therefore remains suspended for a certain time.
As is the case with measurements of gaseous air pollutants, continuous and discontinuous measurement procedures for SPM can be differentiated. As a rule, SPM is first separated on glass fibre or membrane filters.
It follows a gravimetric or radiometric determination. Depending on the sampling, a distinction can be made between a procedure to measure the total SPM without fractionation according to the size of the particles and a fractionation procedure to measure the fine dust. The advantages and disadvantages of fractionated suspended dust measurements are disputed internationally. In Germany, for example, all threshold limits and assessment standards are based on total suspended particulates.
This means that, for the most part, only total SPM measurements are performed. In this procedure, only particles with an aerodynamic diameter up to 10 mm are included 50 per cent inclusion portion , which are inhalable and can enter the lungs. The plan is to introduce the PM procedure into the European Union as a reference procedure.
The cost for fractionated SPM measurements is considerably higher than for measuring total suspended dust, because the measuring devices must be fitted with special, expensively constructed sampling heads that require costly maintenance.