Microencapsulation and Artificial Cells
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Following this research, in , John McCaskill proposed to concentrate on an electronically complemented artificial cell, called the Electronic Chemical Cell. The key idea was to use a massively parallel array of electrodes coupled to locally dedicated electronic circuitry, in a two-dimensional thin film, to complement emerging chemical cellular functionality.
Local electronic information defining the electrode switching and sensing circuits could serve as an electronic genome, complementing the molecular sequential information in the emerging protocols. A research proposal was successful with the European Commission and an international team of scientists partially overlapping with the PACE consortium commenced work on the project Electronic Chemical Cells.
The project demonstrated among other things that electronically controlled local transport of specific sequences could be used as an artificial spatial control system for the genetic proliferation of future artificial cells, and that core processes of metabolism could be delivered by suitably coated electrode arrays. The major limitation of this approach, apart from the initial difficulties in mastering microscale electrochemistry and electrokinetics, is that the electronic system is interconnected as a rigid non-autonomous piece of macroscopic hardware.
Such cells can copy both their electronic and chemical contents and will be capable of evolution within the constraints provided by their special pre-synthesized microscopic building blocks. In September work commenced on this project. Protocell research has created controversy and opposing opinions, including critics of the vague definition of "artificial life". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Haemoglobin-based oxygen carriers.
Hackensack, N. Artificial cells, cell engineering and therapy. Polymeric materials and artificial organs based on a symposium sponsored by the Division of Organic Coatings and Plastics Chemistry at the th Meeting of the American Chemical Society. Washington, D. Trends in Biotechnology. July Bibcode : Sci Blood substitutes.
Basel: Karger. April The International Journal of Artificial Organs. June Nature Medicine. Journal of the American Chemical Society. Retrieved Nature Chemistry. Bibcode : NatCh Biomaterials, Artificial Cells, and Immobilization Biotechnology.
Bibcode : Natur. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Cancer Research. Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology. Molecular Therapy. Molecular Genetics and Metabolism. October Human Gene Therapy. Vox Sanguinis. In Wolff JA ed. Gene Therapeutics. Boston: Birkhauser. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. European Journal of Surgery. Current status of artificial devices and hepatocyte transplantation".
Therapeutic applications of cell microencapsulation Online-Ausg. Digestive Diseases and Sciences. Clinical and Experimental Allergy. International Dairy Journal. Infection and Immunity. Cellular Immunology. Artificial Organs. In Chang TM ed. Artificial Cells, Blood Substitutes, and Biotechnology. Artificial Cells, Blood Substitutes and Biotechnology. Experimental Hematology.
Bibcode : PNAS.. Faraday Discussions. Bibcode : FaDi.. Berlin: Verlag von August Hirschwald. Laddas ned direkt. Early studies by Pendleton and West 1 in demonstrated that urea moved from the blood into the small intestine in uremic dogs. In , Twiss and Kolff 2 showed in uremic patients that urea could be removed when an isotonic solution was perfused through an isolated in- testinalloop. Since these early studies had demonstrated the presence of urea and its removal from the gastrointestinal tract, Yatzidis 3 in investigated the use of activated charcoal for the removal of uremic wastes from the intestinal tract.
In addition to Yatzidis' studies with char- coal, other investigations with charcoal have been unable to confirm any significant reduction in serum levels of urea, creatinine, uric acid, or guanidines 4,5 via this approach. At the same time that Yatzidis proposed the use of charcoal for re- moval of nitrogenous wastes from the intestinal tract, he also proposed using charcoal in a hemoperfusion microapparatus as an effective artifi- cial kidney.
An example of this was demonstrated by Cirone et al. Another approach to cancer suppression is through the use of angiogenesis inhibitors to prevent the release of growth factors which lead to the spread of tumors. The effect of implanting microcapsules loaded with xenogenic cells genetically modified to secrete endostatin , an antiangiogenic drug which causes apoptosis in tumor cells, has been extensively studied.
In , a murine model of pancreatic cancer was used to study the effect of implanting genetically modified cytochrome P expressing feline epithelial cells encapsulated in cellulose sulfate polymers for the treatment of solid tumors. In one patient the capsules were in place for almost 2 years with no side effects. These studies show the promising potential application of cell microcapsules towards the treatment of cancers. Numerous studies have been dedicated towards the development of effective methods to enable cardiac tissue regeneration in patients after ischemic heart disease.
An emerging approach to answer the problems related to ischemic tissue repair is through the use of stem cell-based therapy. Even though numerous methods have been studied for cell administration, the efficiency of the number of cells retained in the beating heart after implantation is still very low. A promising approach to overcome this problem is through the use of cell microencapsulation therapy which has shown to enable a higher cell retention as compared to the injection of free stem cells into the heart.
Another strategy to improve the impact of cell based encapsulation technique towards cardiac regenerative applications is through the use of genetically modified stem cells capable of secreting angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF which stimulate neovascularization and restore perfusion in the damaged ischemic heart. The use of monoclonal antibodies for therapy is now widespread for treatment of cancers and inflammatory diseases. Using cellulose sulphate technology, scientists have successfully encapsulated antibody producing hybridoma cells and demonstrated subsequent release of the therapeutic antibody from the capsules.
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Many other medical conditions have been targeted with encapsulation therapies, especially those involving a deficiency in some biologically derived protein. One of the most successful approaches is an external device that acts similarly to a dialysis machine , only with a reservoir of pig hepatocytes surrounding the semipermeable portion of the blood-infused tubing. Other applications that are still in development include cells that produce Ciliary-derived neurotrophic factor for the treatment of ALS and Huntington's Disease , Glial-derived neurotrophic factor for Parkinson's Disease , Erythropoietin for Anemia , and HGH for Dwarfism.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Bibcode : Sci Journal of Molecular Medicine.
Cancer Therapy. J Control Release. February J Microencapsul. Cell Encapsulation Technology and Therapeutics. J Biomed Mater Res A. March Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Faraday Discussions.
Hybrid Artificial Cells: Microencapsulation of Living Cells
Bibcode : FaDi.. January Cell Transplant. June Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. April Advanced Functional Materials. Cell Biochem. International Dairy Journal. Med Biol Eng Comput. Drug Deliv. August November May J Mater Sci Mater Med. Tissue Eng.