Toxicological profiles - Endosulfan
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Organochlorines are the most commonly found pesticides in the environment including water, sediments, atmospheric air and biotic environment Chopra et al. Organochlorine pesticides consist of a variety of chemicals composed primarily of carbon, hydrogen and chlorine that include among others polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs , polychlorinated dibenzofurans PCDFs , dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane DDT , dieldrin, chlordane, heptachlor, toxaphenes, mirex, lindane, dicofol, hexachlorobenzene, chlordecone and endosulfan Van Dyk and Pletschke, Endosulfan is a broad spectrum insecticide—acaricide of the cyclodiene subgroup which consists of two biologically active isomers: alpha and beta, respectively in a ratio Wan et al.
Due to its toxic effects, the US EPA has classified endosulfan as highly toxic to both freshwater and marine fish and defined the level for protection of freshwater aquatic life as 0. However, endosulfan concentrations from 0.
Mode of Action Endosulfan is a central nervous system stimulant that produces convulsions. It antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid GABA , which leads to a state of uncontrolled neuronal excitation. Technical grade is a yellow-brown color. Uses of Endosulfan Endosulfan is a contact and stomach poison that has been used to control insects such as the Colorado potato beetle, flea beetle, cabbageworm, peach tree borer and tarnished plant bug, as well as several species of aphid and leafhopper.
It is used in countries throughout the world to control pests on fruit, vegetables and tea and on non- food crops such as tobacco and cotton. In addition to its agricultural use is used in the control of the tsetse fly. Endosulfan is also used as a wood preservative and for the control of home garden pests WHO, Endosulfan a hazardous chemical. Toxicity The central nervous system is the major target of endosulfan toxicity in humans and animals.
Catalog Record: Toxicological profile for endosulfan | HathiTrust Digital Library
Waterborne endosulfan is considered highly toxic to fish. Acute toxicity Acute exposure to high doses of endosulfan results in hyperactivity, muscle tremors, ataxia, and hyperactivity ATSDR, The two reported mechanisms of neurotoxicity include: 1 blockage of neurotransmitter receptors Abalis et al.
Chronic toxicity The chronic sub-lethal effects of endosulfan that were manifested in laboratory animals include liver and kidney toxicity, hematological effects, interference with the immune system, and alterations in reproductive organs of males. In male children chronically exposed to endosulfan from aerial-spraying of cashew plantations in north India, a delay in sexual maturity was observed Saiyed et al.
Chronic effects on fish include oxidative damage, genotoxicity, changes in circulating thyroid hormones and alteration of acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain Cuna et al. Reproductive effects Saiyed et al.
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Fish as a biomarker Biochemical biomarkers measure the exposure of organisms to environmental chemicals. We recently added an Independently Peer Reviewed Cancer Oral assessment for , Dioxane based on an assessment conducted by Dourson et al. Bromide is a new addition to ITER.
We added data for the following chemicals: Acrolein , Aroclor , Aroclor , Azodicarbonamide , Carbon Disulfide , Chloral Hydrate , Chloroform , Cumene , Diethylene glycol dimethyl ether , and 1,2,3 - Trichloropropane. This column contains data from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. The ITER entries for these chemicals are based on a published manuscript, and include a link to the Executive Summary as well as a link to purchase the manuscript.
TERA conducted an independent peer review of this assessment. Based on comments received on its draft chronic inhalation minimal risk level, ATSDR has elected to retain its MRL that was derived in the Toxicological Profile until such time as the profile is finalized. Both chemicals are new additions to ITER. Chloroprene is a new addition to ITER.
Joint chemical profiles
The ITER entry for this chemical is based on a published manuscript, and includes a link to the Executive Summary as well as a link to purchase the manuscript. Melamine is a new addition to ITER. Researchers studying children from an isolated village in Kerala, India in linked endosulfan exposure to delays in sexual maturity among boys.
In the study, endosulfan was the only pesticide applied to cashew plantations in the hills above the village for 20 years, and was found to have contaminated the environment around the village. The researchers compared these villagers to a control group of boys from a demographically similar village that lacked a history of endosulfan pollution. The exposed boys had high levels of endosulfan in their bodies, relative to the control group, plus lower levels of the male hormone testosterone.
The exposed boys also exhibited delays in reaching sexual maturity. Birth defects of the male reproductive system were also more prevalent in the study group. Endosulfan is an acute neurotoxin to both insects and mammals, including humans. Symptoms of acute poisoning include hyperactivity, tremors, convulsions, lack of coordination, staggering, difficulty breathing, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, and in severe cases, unconsciousness.
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Farm workers with chronic endosulfan exposure are at risk of rashes and skin irritation. As a result of its poisonous and persistent nature, along with pressure from the public see poster, right , endosulfan was banned from more than 80 countries for 20 years or more.
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- Endosulfan sulfate (T3D0055).
In April the Stockholm Convention instigated a global ban in manufacture and use of endosulfan, although it is still used extensively in India, China, and few other countries.