Trouble with tourism and travel theory

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Encyclopedic cross-referencing between entries makes navigation easy, while in-depth analysis, exercises and further reading suggestions for each of the selected areas provide the context and detail needed for understanding. Entries can be used individually as a reference, or as part of the whole for a complete introduction to tourism theory. Have you read this book, or used it for one of your courses? We would love to hear your feedback. Email our reviews team to submit a review.


  • Tourism geography.
  • Tourism: Between Place and Performance;
  • Where we work;

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Close Find out more. Consequently, they marketed holidays based upon sea trips from London to Lisbon and Gibraltar.

Other companies diverted their older ships to operate cruises in the summer months. However, the real age of international mass travel began with the growth of air travel after World War Two. In the immediate post-war period, there was a surplus of transport aircraft, such as the popular and reliable Douglas Dakota, and a number of ex military pilots ready to fly them.

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They were available for charter flights, and tour operators began to use them for European destinations, such as Paris and Ostend. Vladimir Raitz pioneered modern package tourism when on 20 May his recently founded company, Horizon, provided arrangements for a two-week holiday in Corsica. However it was with cheap air travel in combination with the package tour that international mass tourism developed. The postwar introduction of an international system of airline regulation was another important factor. The bilateral agreements at the heart of the system fixed seat prices, and airlines could not fill blocks of empty seats on underused flights by discounting.

But if they were purchased by a tour operator and hidden within the price of an inclusive holiday package, it would be difficult to prove that discounting had taken place - even though it was obvious that it had! This was the origin of the modern mass package tour. These developments coincided with a significant increase in the standard of living in Britain. At the end of the s, Harold Macmillan could say "you've never had it so good. Another significant development also happened at the end of this decade. The devaluation of the Spanish peseta made Spain appear a particularly attractive destination.

The cheapness of the cost of living attracted increasing numbers of visitors. Mass package tourism has at times been an exploitative process, in which tour operators in a country with a high standard of living make use of development opportunities and low operating costs in a country with a lower standard of living. However, as witness the development of many tourist areas in previously poor parts of the world, and the concomitant rise in standards of living, when there is equality of bargaining power, both parties can gain economic benefits from this arrangement.

Spain and the Balearic Islands became major tourist destinations, and development probably peaked in the s. At the same time, British tour operators developed the Algarve in Portugal. The continuing search for new, cheaper, destinations spread mass tourism to the Greek Islands, Italy, Tunisia, Morocco, parts of the coast of Turkey, and more recently Croatia.

For the worker living in greater London, Venice today is almost as accessible as Brighton was years ago. Consequently, the British seaside resort experienced a marked decline from the s onwards. Some, such as New Brighton have disappeared. Others have reinvented themselves, and now cater to daytrippers and the weekend break market. Components of travel and tourism the definition of Travel.

Travel is changing location using different types of transport. Tourism is the temporary short term movement of people to destination outside the place they normally live or work. For example young couple travel to New York visit friends. Types of tourism. Tourism can be divided into three categories: Domestic tourism This is when people take holidays, short breaks and day trips in they own country e.

Inbound tourism. This is when people enter the country from their own country of origin or another country which is not their home.


  • Tourism geography - Wikipedia.
  • The English Country House Explained.
  • Where we work.
  • Win with Advanced Business Analytics: Creating Business Value from Your Data.

Outbound tourism. This is when people travel away from the country where they normally live. These are most important components in tourism industry. A travel agent provides information to the people on various travel destinations, advises them of available holiday packages to suit their tastes and budget and chart their travel plan. He would generally sell the travel associated products like currency exchange, car rentals, insurance etc.

Tour Operators: Tour operators offer holiday packages which comprise of 1. Travel like by rail, road or air. Accommodation like hotels, resorts, apartments, guesthouses 3. Travel services like airport pick and drop, sightseeing, excursions etc. These tour operators may be the wholesale operators who operate tours only through retail travel agencies or they may be direct sell operators who market their product directly to the public. Accommodation Lodging and Catering : This components consists of those who provide accommodation to the people in the form of hotels, resorts, apartments, camps, guest houses etc.

The accommodation may be marketed individually or through the tour operators in the form of package. Direct marketing may require huge costs on advertisement and selling through a tour operator guarantees the occupancy rate throughout a holiday season. These service providers also take care of the catering needs of the people b providing them huge cafeterias, various fast food outlets in house or in the form of a Galleria.

Various Kinds of Transport: Transport providers are those operating any major form of transport. They could be airlines, cruise lines, car rentals, and rail companies. Tourist Attractions: The principle of attraction is to establish the need for the attraction in a particular location to invite more footfall. It may be a huge theme park, a museum, a gallery, a heritage building, an educational center etc. Many countries see the need to have one or more visitor attraction in the area to widen their appeal and attract huge potential tourist.

These bodies also making bridges between the traders and visitors travellers. Accommodation is one of the main sector in travel and tourism. Those organisations interrelate to produce and promote travel products and services. Also some organisations are independent of other such as visitor attractions including local heritage Chain of Distribution Chain of distribution show the way, product such as for example holidays are distributed from producer to customers, often via wholesalers and retailers.

Tourism Management

Integration in the travel and tourism industry occurs when one company owns or controls more than one part of distribution process. There are two types of integration. First Choice Holidays owns a number of tour operating brands like First Choice Holiday or Sovereign Vertical Integration is when the company integrate at the different levels of the distribution chain. Traveling is one effective way to see the world, experience new cultures and meet new people at the same time. This is why there are many different types of tourism that explain why tourists choose a particular destination and the things that they expect to do when they are there.

Tourism: Between Place and Performance

Perhaps the most common type of tourism is what most people associate with traveling: Recreation tourism. This is when people go to a place that is very different from their regular day-to-day life to relax and have fun. Beaches, theme parks and camp grounds are often the most common places frequented by recreational tourists.

Tourists may visit different landmarks of a particular country or they may simply opt to focus on just one area. They may also attend festivals and ceremonies in order to gain a better understanding of the people, their beliefs and their practices. For tourists who want to see wildlife or bask in the joy of just being in the midst of nature, nature tourism is the answer. Ecotourism and nature treks are all part of this kind of tourism. Bird watching, for example, is one activity that nature tourists are fond of doing. What marks this kind of tourism is that it is environmentally responsible, has low impact and advantageous to the local community.

Many people today are stressed out in the corporate rat race and in need of rejuvenation. Thus, they go on trips that refresh their souls and spirits. This is called pleasure tourism and usually includes yoga workshops and detox vacations, among others.

Questions of Value: Tourism and the Resources Boom – AHR

Others, however, de-stress by engaging in a particular sport. Called sports tourism, travelers here target places which are known for a particular sporting facility. Skiing, for example, is a type of sports tourism. Also included in this category are those who go to a destination to experience a sports spectacle such as the Olympics, FIFA World Cup and others. Religious tourism is another type of tourism where people go to a religious location or locations to follow the footsteps of their founder or to attend a religious ceremony.

Catholics, for example, go on pilgrimages in the Holy Land to experience the paths where Jesus walked. For instance, certain countries promote the expertise of their doctors and surgeons in the field of cosmetic surgery and invite foreigners to have their liposuction, facelift, nose lift and other forms of cosmetic procedures to be done there.

Medical tourism also incorporates aspects of recreation tourism where the patient goes to a relaxing getaway to recover from the procedure. Adventure tourism is another type of tourism that is catered for those who want to do more than just visit regular tourist sites. These kinds of trips involve challenging activities like rock climbing, mountain climbing and wild water rafting.